Writing with the pseudonym “Andrew Berwick”, Breivik penned a 1,516-page manifesto entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence — a reference to the unsuccessful second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683— which he e-mailed to 5,700 people just hours before the attacks.In the manifesto, which is part political discussion, part confessional, and part action plan, Breivik sets out his belief that his actions will help to spark a civil war in Europe that will last for decades, progressing through three distinct phases and culminating in 2083 with the extermination of European Marxists and the expulsion of Muslims from Europe. In the manifesto, Berwick-Breivik describes his background and discusses his political viewpoints.Major parts of the manifesto are attributed to the anonymous Norwegian blogger Fjordman. The introductory chapter of the manifesto defining “Cultural Marxism” is a copy of Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology by the Free Congress Foundation.The text also copies sections of the Unabomber manifesto, without giving credit, while exchanging the words “leftists” for “cultural Marxists” and “black people” for “muslims“. The New York Times described American influences in Brevik’s writings, noting that he mentions the anti-Islamist American Robert Spencer 64 times in his manifesto and cites Spencer’s works at great length.The work of the Egyptian born British author Bat Ye’or, whom the New York Times called one “of the most extreme voices on the new Jewish right”, is cited dozens of times.The pamphlet also quotes from Jeremy Clarkson’s Sunday Times column as well as Melanie Phillips’ Daily Mail column. Breivik also admires Ayaan Hirsi Ali, who deserves the Nobel Prize, according to him, Bruce Bawer, Srđa Trifković,andHenryk Broder.